Carbohydrates, or sugars, provide essential energy to the body that can store them in the liver and muscles as glucose. This glucose provides, if necessary, the fuel needed by the body.
Among carbohydrates, there are two main categories: simple sugars, and complex sugars. Simple sugars are divided into two groups: monosaccharides, including glucose, fructose and galactose, and dissacharides (combining several monosaccharides): sucrose, lactose and maltose. As for complex sugars (polysaccharides), which consist of monosaccharide chains, they include starch, glycogen and cellulose.
The sugars consumed in excess, are transformed into fat and stored in the adipose tissue; therefore, it is recommended to be wary of excess sugar when you want to lose weight or stay slim.
As part of a balanced diet, 55% of the energy intake must consist of carbohydrates, which are mostly complex.
Good to know : foods without carbohydrates:
Lipids, or fats, like other nutrients, are essential for the proper functioning of the body. For the record, our brain is made up of at least 50% lipids. But beware, consumed in excess, they can lead to weight gain and the onset of certain diseases (especially depending on fats consumed).
There are three main categories of lipids: saturated, poly-unsaturated and monounsaturated. The first are present in dairy products, meats, sausages (that is to say in animal fat). When consumed in excess, these fats are deposited on the walls of the arteries, and promote atherosclerosis, with certain complications, such as cardiovascular accidents.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids must be consumed on a daily basis because they are essential for the proper functioning of the body which can not synthesize them. But beware ! They oxidize easily and become toxic to the body, hence the interest of consuming them at the same time as antioxidant substances (vitamins A, C, E ...). They are present in corn oils, sunflower, soy, grape seeds ...
Monounsaturated fatty acids have the advantage of lowering the level of blood cholesterol which - in excess - can be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. They are found in certain vegetable oils such as olive or rapeseed. These are the famous omega 3, omega 6, and omega 9.