Colôn consists of several parts: the right colon, the transverse colon, the left colon and the sigmoid colon. It is continued by the rectal bulb, the rectum and the anus.
Colôn is colonized by many bacteria that participate in the process of digestion.
The bolus continues to be modified, the colon allows the absorption of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chlorine, ...). There is also a reverse phenomenon of hydro-electrolytic secretion to allow the internal environment to be maintained in a state of equilibrium.
In addition, colôn is the place of digestion:
- endogenous proteins and cholesterol (resulting from the regular degradation of the intestinal cells and the bacteria themselves),
- urea contained in the bile,
- dietary fiber such as cellulose that could not be digested previously.
Carbohydrate degradation leads to fermentation and gas production.
This is the last stage of digestion: colonic contractions bring the bolus, which gradually turns into faeces, towards the exit.
The storage of feces between two defecations is performed in the sigmoid colon and rectal bulb. These are the rectum and anus that then allow defecation.
The need for defecation is triggered by increased pressure in the rectal bulb. This action is voluntary and involves the muscles of the perineum, the abdomen and the anal sphincter. Continence is ensured by the anal sphincter.
It is possible to defer the need to defecate, the rectal bulb adapting to the content.
To remember :
Food and digestion of food is essential for life. It provides cells of the body with all the elements necessary for their formation and proper functioning: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, water, electrolytes and vitamins.
Digestion makes it possible to transform foods into small molecules: amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, ... so that they can be absorbed by the intestinal mucosa.
These simple elements will be transferred to the blood or lymph and will be transformed into cells into complex molecules adapted to the needs of the body.
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