The goal is to lower blood sugar. The treatment will be different depending on whether the diabetes is type I or type II.
Treatment of type I diabetes
The basis of treatment for type I diabetes is insulin. Since the pancreas does not secrete insulin at all, it must be replaced.
Insulin is a drug that is administered subcutaneously. There are no insulin tablets. Several insulin injections in the day are needed.
Another possibility is to use an insulin pump that delivers the insulin dose subcutaneously in the belly. The device (small size) is worn on the belt.
The amount of insulin to be administered is calculated on the blood glucose values:Diabetics have a device with them to measure their blood sugar: they make a small bite at the end of the finger that makes a drop of blood analyzed automatically. In general, before each injection of insulin, the patient is given a blood glucose and will inject a dose of insulin corresponding to the value of the blood glucose found.
Treatment of type II diabetes
The pancreas still works a little but insulin is misused by the cells of the body. These are quite often older people (over 40 years old) who have little or no physical activity and are overweight; they also have lipid metabolism disorders: too much triglycerides (hypertriglycidemia) and too much cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia).
Note that this type of diabetes sometimes occurs in children suffering from obesity.
It is essential to eat properly and lose weight; the constants - blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides - may return to normal, or improve, as weight decreases.
Drug treatment for type II diabetes involves taking oral anti-diabetics that lower blood sugar. It is not necessary to dose blood sugar every day. A blood glucose is made periodically to see if the diabetes is stabilized.
Insulin therapy may be necessary if oral medications become insufficient. Note that a new range of drugs has just been marketed. This new treatment (in injectable form) reproduces the actions of a hormone normally produced by the intestine, and which makes it possible to better control the sugar level in the blood.
To see: this video of the High Authority of Health: The HAS speaks to you of the type II diabetes!
A complication of treatment to avoid: hypoglycemia
Glucose should not be lowered too much and hypoglycemia and the risk of malaise or hypoglycemic coma should occur.There are early warning signs that diabetics know well: sweating, fatigue, hunger, tremors.
They always have with them sugar that they will eat at this moment, they are fast sugars which pass quickly in the blood; the blood glucose can then rise quickly.
This is the challenge of treating diabetes: adapt the treatment so that the blood glucose is permanently as close to normal as possible.
Dietary rules are paramount
A diabetic patient must have a suitable and balanced diet: overall starchy foods in a reasonable quantity with each meal, avoid as much as possible the fast sugars, that is to say the sweet desserts, sweets, jam, honey, sugar ... and decrease some fats. The other food groups: protein (meat, fish, eggs), vegetables and fruits are allowed as well as unsweetened dairy products.
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Sport is allowed, it is even a recommended activity. The physical activity leading to the consumption of sugar, the blood glucose drop and allows to reduce the doses of insulin or anti-diabetic oral brought. It is advisable to practice endurance sports rather than violent because they cause sudden changes in blood sugar that is difficult to predict and regulate.
Even mild physical activity such as walking is just as useful since it also leads to a physiological decline in blood glucose.
It should be noted, however, that the risk of hypoglycemia persists for several hours after stopping physical activity. For an activity practiced in the afternoon, hypoglycemia may occur in the night that follows.
Sports under medical supervision
When a diabetic starts to play sports, it is necessary to talk to a doctor who knows the question well to ask for advice; indeed, the patient must learn to know the variations of his blood sugar as a function of the effort and the duration of the effort. He must learn to adapt his diet and treatment, to avoid hypo or hyperglycemia.
Sometimes, it will be necessary to be under medical supervision at the beginning of the recovery of the activity.
A known diabetic, if he decides to resume a sports activity after years of stopping, must have a complete cardio-vascular assessment before starting, especially if he is a certain age, he is overweight but this is valid for all, diabetic or not.You want to react, to give your testimony or to ask a question? Appointment in our FORUMS Diabetes or A doctor answers you!
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